What is the best low cost solution for sewage treatment plant for low cost affordable housing


We are developing mass scale low cost housing at Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India that requires treatment of 1.8 MLD sewage water daily. The treated water will be reused for flushing toilets and gardening through porous pipe. What is the best low cost and low maintenance solution? Should we go for anaerobic digestion and gasification or another surface bed treatment system. Initial cost and running maintenance should be low and affordable. 

Ar Jignesh Goyani






Ward van Proosdij
Sewage plants by definition are expensive to build and expensive to maintain, have you considered solutions like septic systems or sharing cleanup facilities?
rajasegar radhakrishnan
DEWATS will be a best solution. It has many advantages like you can save space, incorporate into your lanscape area, better aesthetic, better performance etc....For Indian climate it works well.
William van Engelenburg
a sewage lagoon is usually the most economical for a small community' for individual home a septic yank with laech bed or leach pit if the soil has decent percolation you can reach me on Skype to discuss name HOLSTEIN 76 BILL VANENGELENBURG
Jose A Casal
Sewage lagoon systems are always affordable solution
Muhammad Abbas Khan
Storage of water is also part of treatment
Sarvesh Rahate
I would recommend the PHYTORID treatment that would meet with the water quality that is required for the toilet flushing and gardening purposes. The treatment requires practically zero maintenance.
Meesha Tandon
dewats (decentralized wastewater treatment systems) would be an ideal choice
It uses natural treatment
Ferdinand Quinones
An in-situ communal recirculating sand filter with disinfection could do the job at a minimal cost. The USEPA has guidelines for the design and construction of on-site wastewater treatment system, which are excellent for isolated communities and certain activities (military fields, golf courses, large farms, isolated communities). A two-chamber storage system with a volume proportional to the flow is needed, either underground or above the surface. Solids decant in the first chamber like in most septic tanks, liquids flowing by gravity to the second chamber. Either by gravity or with a small pump, and equivalent amount of the inflow is discharged into a sand filter, near the surface, allowing the water to trickle through the sand filter (depth of sand is proportial to area of treatment and/or inflow). The sand filter is encapsulated with a rubber membrane welded in situ to a seal. Collection pipes at the bottom of the sand filter drain by gravity into a sump, where a low-head pumping system with a recirculating solenoid valve returns a certain % of the flow to the second chamber and the balance to the irrigation fields. Disinfection is provided to the line going to the irrigation field through an automatic chlorinator or UV system. In a small system we built for a golf course in Puerto Rico, BOD's were reduced by 95%, equivalent to secondary treatment, and the transparency of the water was almost 100%. I have a paper on the subject that you can request at my email fquinon@msn.com, but it is in Spanish. The USEPA page on In Situ Treatment Systems provides a lot of the design criteria.
Nitinchandra Chaudhari
Economics lies with following Basic Principles. Reduction of Volume, Segregation, Effective Physical Treatment i.e. for Separation, Oxidation, Reuse, Efficient Production & effective Salable Products of 1) useful outputs like Bio-gas, 2) combustible Pellets, 3) Fertilisers, 4) Heat & Power, 5) Reduction of Volume of Final form of Waste and method of its safe disposal.. Each aspect needs to be considered with availability of facilities for natural & fast disposal. Solution cannot be standard as everywhere environment ans quality of waste is different. Even cost & availability of Land affects / matters finals decision. Right from campaign for lower wastage of water, Segregation of solid waste, possibility of Separate collection of Sullage, Urinals, small bore waste collection for Waste from Toilet and local Treatment possibility also affect economics. Community Type, its size as Large Urban, / Town size or Village Size also affect economics.
Mallikarjuna alapaka
Greetings from KROFTA!!!

Let me have the pleasure to introduce Krofta Engineering Ltd,
providing 360° Degree Waste Water treatment Solutions to
Industriessince 1983. EXCELLENT results in reducing BOD, COD, TSS, Color, Oil &
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KROFTA is a world leader in water and wastewater treatment, water and
process materials recovery and water purification using the concepts
of Dissolved Air Floatation (DAF) Technology. Krofta clarifiers have
retention times as low as 3 minutes and with a possibility of resource
recovery in some cases as opposed to the sedimentation methods
characterized by very long retention times. That is why KROFTA has
been able to install 6000+ units worldwide.

In respect of technologies, we have collaborated with leading
organizations in the world. These include: Krofta Technologies
Corp-USAwho had perfected DAF as a pioneer, KWI International-Austria,
AJV Engineering-Finland for belt & sludge presses, Stetfield
Separators Ltd, U.K, for oil-water separator like CPI & TPI, Leiblein,
Germany for Lamella Clarifier. With latest technologies available with
us, equipments are manufactured in India, which perform and deliver
expected results consistently.

Following broad category of Krofta equipments find use in specialized
treatment, filtration and recovery of solids from in process
industrial effluents, and from municipal & housing society sewage:

1. Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) clarifiers

2. Belt Filter Press

3. Centrifuges

4. Lamella Clarifier

5. Oil-Water Separator-Corrugated Plate Interceptor, Tilted plate
interceptor, Oil and Grease Skimmer.

6. Filters - Sand Filter, Activated Carbon Filters, Iron Removal
Filter, Gravity Filter.

7. Membrane Systems - Ultra Filtration, Reverse Osmosis, Micro
Filtration, Nano-Filtration, Membrane Bio Reactor.

8. Disinfection Systems - U.V, Ozonation, Chlorination, Peroxide dosing

9. TDS reduction systems: Ion-Exchange Process- Demineraliser,
Dealkaliser, Softeners.

Above equipments help in quick recovery of intermediate process
materials, chemicals, recovery and reuse of wastewater, enabling the
step towards overall zero discharge capability. Our technical
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industries like paper. We are extending this service to other
industries also. We thus help industries meet Triple Bottom Line
needs: economic, environmental and equity (social).

We offer customized and satisfactory solutions to our valued customers
in India and abroad alike; in countries like Sri Lanka, Pakistan,
Nepal, Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam, Iran, South Africa, Jordan, Dubai

We welcome your team members to contact us with details of effluent
characteristics, so that Krofta Engineering can suggest solutions.

To know more about our product range, kindly visit our company
website: www.kroftaengineering.com. Kindly feel free to write for
further information you may require.

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Warm Regards

Process Engineer
Krofta Engineering Limited
Durga Bhavan
A-68, FIEE Complex,
Okhla Industrial Area Phase II
New Delhi 110 020
Tel: +91 11 47242500
Mb: +919555155278
Excellence in Environmental Engineering
Mallikarjuna alapaka
Exstandard aeration and MBBR technologies are suitable for your sewage treatment plant..The treated water will be reused for flushing toilets and gardening,
these systems are very low cost and easy operation compare to other treatment process.

if you have any clarifications please free call me..

Mark Owen
Orenco Systems makes efficient and cost-effective waste water systems - http://www.orenco.com/systems/wastewater_solutions_for_communities.cfm
EAWC  Greentech
1, 8 million liter sewage is not a problem . Forget the complicated filter etc systems .
Just filter the solids out of it and use it later for gasification .
The sewage can be sterilized and reused .
Approximately cost is around $5 million - low maintain cost -

Craig Lindell
Circumstances will determine low cost.
Here are criteria developed by Severn Trent.
1. Low capital costs

2. Minimal power/electrical requirements

3. Minimal moving & mechanical components

4. Minimal sludge generation; preferably none

5. Requires minimal operator attention and licensure; preferably unskilled

6. Capable of treating water to a high standard over a range of hydraulic loading rates

7. Resistant to temperature extremes and sewage composition variability

8. Modular and relatively easy to modify or upgrade

9. Capable of accommodating intermittent flows without compromising treatment

10. Minimizes odor, fly nuisance, noise and intrusion on surrounding environment

11. Low visual/aesthetic impact and small footprint

12. No hazardous conditions

We used this criteria and largely settled on building our company around fixed film processes
see www.aquapoint.com.
Much of the decision will relate not to capital equipment but rather to life cycle costs.
Have a look at the Bioclere, which is a very versatile trickling filter over a clarifier, on the Web site and if it makes sense to you contact me directly for more detailed information.
Craig Lindell
Jamie Skolnik
Clay, sawdust and a plastic bucket can make a water filter that catches dirt and disease-causing microbes. In the classic design, mix clay with a combustible material like sawdust or rice husks, give it a flower pot shape and fire it in a kiln. The sawdust or rice husks burn away, leaving tiny pores in the ceramic through which water filters. Organizations around the world have been using this kind of ceramic filter to reduce disease in impoverished communities for years.
lyseconcept jean Marius
Pour répondre à Roberto Scardua
il n'existe aucune plante au monde capable d'épurer les eaux usées.les plantes sont uniquement là pour faire beau et pour éviter que le lit filtrant parte en putréfaction.
To answer Roberto Scardua
the weather does not exist any plant in the world able to purify water usées.les plants are only there to be nice and to prevent that the filtering bed leaves in putrefaction.
lyseconcept jean Marius
L'assainissement Biologique avec le concept biotechnologique du procédé "Fosse Biologique"lyseconcept est le plus économique, écologique des traitements d'épuration des eaux usées. il est globale et définitif ce qui supprime toute organisation de traitement palliatif à suivre comme la vidange et l'épandage. il s'implante en toute condition en toute situation modulable à volonté. surtout il est productif: le sutilisateurs du site pilote vont recycler leurs eaux usées pour produirte leur prope agronomie. ils procurent l'occasion d'économier de l'eau, il sosustrait les gens à la taxe d'assainissement du collectif très élevée. Son coût d'implantation est fix fois inférieur à tout autre système d'assainissement .
The Biological cleansing with the biotechnological concept of the process “Pit Biological " lyseconcept is most economic, ecological treatments of purification of waste waters. it is total and final what removes any organization of palliative treatment to follow as draining and spreading. it is established in any condition in any flexible situation at will. especially it is productive: the users of the pilot site will recycle their waste waters to produce their own agronomy. they get the occasion to save water, it withdraws people from the very high tax of cleansing of the collective.
it enables them to save money on the chemical domestic maintenance products
Its cost of establishment is ten times lower than any other system of cleansing
christine  adam
constructed wetland is a good solution
Leonardo Zanata

Try to visit: www.jetincorp.com/residential-wastewater-treatment-plant.php

They have very interesting and simple systems to this kind of application.

The contact there is Mr. Grant. The systems are cheap and reliable.

Regards! Léo.
Tom Mallard
The Earthship system of using collected water has the kitchen and toilet on the septic tank and graywater is used to grow food, this graywater system requires the plants to work properly and any plants will do. Their systems work down to 15cm of rain annually, they do use cisterns and filtration and treatment for collected water purification, their systems are up to code in the USA.

However, I realize this is a distributed system and doesn't require sewage piping infrastructure or the need for a separate source of water. For centralized systems, there is no such thing as "cheap" compared to distributed water treatment.
Edwin Ricarte
how much space do you have?
when you say the cheapest budget, how much is your budget?
Otto Gruhn
We offer a several solutions, the "best" depends on your application and your goals. Generally speaking a activated sludge process is all you need, however if you want/need higher capacity smaller footprint you may want to go with MBBR, if you need tertiary for reuse we can add that, if you would like a low cost ultra green solution we offer bio-augmentation. All our systems are fully packaged or containerized.

Alexandros Stefanakis
A simple low-cost technology for onsite treatment is Constructed Wetlands. Usually the costs for operation and maintenance are very low, since these facilities are easy to run (no big mechanical parts, no need for personnel, almost automatic-natural operation, very low power consumption only for pumps). However, surface area needs are higher. There are numerous such facilities around the world now, we have also designed many and it is well proven that treated effluent can be reused for garden irrigation or toilet flushing. For applications like yours, I think you should seriously think about CWs. Let me know if I can provide any assistance.
Qasem  Brati
Decentralized Wastewater Treatment System (DWATS)

Paul Jacob
1000 m3/day to reuse standards. I think you might need to use membrane bioreactor. But it might not be very low cost or low maintenance. But will bring the water to reuse standards for sure.

Wetland can help you keep the cost low with low maintenance. But I dont think you can get reuse quality water and has a very large land requirement. Water will be good for gardening but definitely not for toilet flushing. But this might be argued by others here.

AD: Needs good C/N ratio. Human waste cannot get you that. But someone else has some innovative ideas, I would like to know.

roberto scardua
sawage plants not included in our product range
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