A free chlorine plant of pulp and paper will be installed near Orinoco River in ...

Raw polluted water is often contaminated and can cause environmental harm and pose health risks


In my opinion, reused for irrigation of the effluent of secondary treatment of pulp and paper plant is very crucial  in the last quarter of the 20th century's plant production. In the  use of polluted water for irrigation is becoming increasingly common in countries that do not have enough clean water. However, raw polluted water is often contaminated and can cause environmental harm and pose health risks. Nevertheless, it is often used without any significant pretreatment, a practice mistakenly considered safe. If water is viewed as an economic good and a finite resource that should be valued and managed in a rational manner.  I think current environmental policies should aim to control pollution and to maximize recycling and reuse of GW within households and communities. We know that water quality criteria have been widely established for a number of traditional water quality variables such as pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand for periods of five or seven days (BOD5 and BOD7), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nutrients. Especially in countries with rivers affected by severe organic pollution, it  should be  established of control strategies to decrease the potential for oxygen depletion and the resultant low BOD and COD levels.


Thank you very much Dr. Abdul Jamil for your valuable comments and sharing the information.
Yeshayahu Bar-Or
The suitability of paper mill effluents for irrigation depends heavily on concentration of salts. Boron is a particular problem as it is found in high concentration in paper effluents and many agricultural crops are sensitive to it (at concentrations as low as 0.3 ppm).

High COD can be solved by anaerobic treatment following aerobic activated sludge treatment.
We have gained experience with a large paper mill plant and will be happy to consult on the issue.

Many thanks Yeshayahu for your valuable comments and sharing the information.
Tafë  Veselaj
There are many instances of the reused for irrigation of water effluent after secondary treatment, however, is difficult to give an answer to yes or no. It is necessary to have a monitoring for parameters, BOD5, COD, Total Suspended solids, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, which will tell emission limit values.
abdul jamil
I support the comments by Dr.Sami.It is difficult to say yes or no to the suitability of the effluent unless we know it's chemical characteristics.Type of crop tobe irrigated is also important .chemicals present more than the level of tolerance makes the effluent not suitable.besides the damage to the crop,chemicals accumulate in the soil and make unfit for crops.Abdul Jamil
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