A free chlorine plant of pulp and paper will be installed near Orinoco River in ...

Patrick A. Grimaud


The wastewater will most propably contain a high level of heavy metals.

Wastewater from paper mill has a relative high concentration of carbonates and tendency to precipitate calcium in the soil as CaCO3. It will increase the proportion of sodium to calcium and magnesium and sodium.

Irrigation with paper mill effluent will led to an increased pH. The concentration of N, P, K and Na will be high.

The dark colour prevent the natural photosynthesis process due to absence of sunlight penetration.

The propose wastewater must be analysed and treated accordingly before used to irrigation. Patrick


Patrick Albert Grimaud
The contents of Pb, Zn, Cr etc will vary from plant to plant. Therefore to be analyzed prior use. Effluents are generally alkaline in reaction with high chemical and biological oxygen demands.
low-cost adsorbents having metal-binding capacities has mineral, organic or biological agricultural wastes, biomass, compost and polymeric materials can to some extent remediated and reduce the heavy metals content.
But again, must be analyzed and tested before deciding. Patrick
Patrick Albert Grimaud
Sludge from Domestic wastewater treatment plants can after proper treatment, and testing, be used with advantage as fertilizer after being mixed with e.g. organic waste, garden waste and paper. The lasts in the mixture, as structure materials. Patrick
Linda Robertson
Also, paper mill waste contains very low levels of nitrogen.
Linda Robertson
Pulp and paper mills have extremely low levels of heavy metals. It is far safer than effluent from a municipal treatment facility. There were extensive studies done on sludge as fertilizer and soil amendment by the University of Washington. If I remember correctly, we did studies and found the sludge would support luxuriant growth of corn.
Ines Zegoulli
I agree with Mr Grimaud, heavy metals need to be analysed first before reuse to make sure no contamination are being added to the soil without treatment. The dark color is also an issue. An analysis of water is required, especially as the soil pH is important for agricultural soils.
No the effluent with COD 800 is not safe to use for irrigation. Secondly the effluent will be having other pollutants which can harm the soil and human exposed to this environment.
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