Integrated Water Resource Management - IWRM

THE PROBABLE FULFILLMENT OF A HOPE ON THE GANGES CLEAN-UP

Mashallah Ali-Ahyaie
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Started by Mashallah Ali-Ahyaie on
22 Jun 2015 at 05:48
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THE PROBABLE FULFILLMENT OF A HOPE ON THE  GANGES CLEAN-UP
 
 HOPE IS THE ESSENCE OF SURVIVAL, IN LIFE WHENEVER AND WHEREVER ONE IS  FACING PROBLEMS. ONE MAY REFER TO THE REFERENCES, AT THE END OF THIS ARTICLE, GETTING AWARE OF THE GANGES POLLUTION PROBLEMS, AND THE TRIED AND UNDERGOING REMEDIES THEREOF, SO FAR. THERE ARE ALSO, SO MANY OTHER SOURCES, VIA INFORMATIVE DOCUMENTS, IMAGES, VIDEOS, ETC. ON THE WEB, IN THIS REGARDS,  BUT THE HOPING STATEMENT, AS UNDERLINED, AT THE END OF THE FOLLOWING DESCRIPTION ON THE "SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS" IS MAKING THE UNDERSIGNED HOPING IN TURN, THAT PROBABLY,THE FULFILLMENT OF THE HOPE COULD BE PREDICTED, BASED ON THE DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES GOING ON (http://janickibioenergy.com/,) TURNING THREATS INTO OPPORTUNITIES; UNTREATED RAW SEWAGE COULD BECOME A WEALTH; AN ENERGY SOURCE:
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Solutions to Problems
        Pollution in the Ganges River occurs daily when civilians from all over come to bath in the most sacred river in India. Cremated bodies, sewage from factories, and occasionally a dead animal float around in the river on a daily basis. Because the river is known as a sacred healing body of water, people who have sicknesses and diseases bathe themselves hoping that it will cure them. Others who go into the polluted river do it because of tradition, especially Hindu priests.
 Over the years not much has been done to try to clean up the unsanitary Ganges River. The efforts that have been made have either made it worse or not even worked at all! The city of Varanasi, in India, has begun many groups to help clear up the river and make it clean to bath in once again.
             Veer Bhadra Misra, a head priest at the Sankat Mochan temple, founded the Sankat Mochan Foundation. The foundation gives awareness on the need to protect the Ganges River. The foundation had come up with a few ways to try to clean the river up. The plan involves a 4-mile pipeline to intercept all the sewage that would normally flow in to the Ganges from the Varanasi area. The pipeline would then extend another 4 miles to an elevated sandbar in the Ganges where a series of ponds would cleanse the waste using microorganisms to destroy the bacteria. The government has already spent about $33 million to build a plant that would help with the huge sewage problem. 
 The problem with this new idea of using a pipeline to clean the water is the fact that it used electric-powered pumps to pump the water through to clean it. When the power goes out, the town regained all the polluted water right back, and was even more than there was before! That idea was thrown out a couple of years after it was applied.
 Another attempt at cleaning the water has started a couple of years ago. The Ganga Action Plan (GAP) is in effect, and will be about a seven-year process. The first phase of this plan had failed, and the people hope that the second phase will be effective. The civilians are sure it will fail if electric-powered pumps like the other clean-up ideas run it. 
 Hopefully over the upcoming years the awareness of the polluted Ganges River will increase. The more inventions thought up on how to clean the river the better, so that the people who consider the river sacred can at least bath in a river that is just as pure as its reputation.
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    IN A NUTSHELL, IT IS ESTIMATED THAT 1 BILLION LITRES PER DAY OF WASTE, MOSTLY UNTREATED RAW SEWAGE IS ENTERING THE GANGES RIVER, AS FOLLOWS:  
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      Cool Stuff To Know 
 
  • The Ganges is 1557 miles long (2506 km)
  • The Ganges Valley, or basin, is 200 to 400 miles (322 to 644 km) wide
  • The river starts in an ice cave on the southern slopes of the Himalayas, some 10,300 feet (3,140 meters) above sea level.
  • It flows eastward and empties into the Bay of Bengal. Its mouths forms a vast delta. At the delta it is joined by the southward-flowing Brahmaputra River. Their combined delta is the largest in the world
  • The delta begins more than 200 miles (322 kilometers) from the Bay of Bengal and lies mostly in Bangladesh. It is largely a tangled swampland
  • There are two major dams on the Ganga. One at Haridwar diverts much of the Himalayan snowmelt into the Upper Ganges Canal, built by the British in 1854 to irrigate the surrounding land. This caused severe deterioration to the water flow in the Ganga, and is a major cause for the decay of Ganga as an inland waterway
  • The other dam is a serious hydroelectric affair at Farakka, close to the point where the main flow of the river enters Bangladesh, and the tributary Hooghly (also known as Bhagirathi) continues in West Bengal past Calcutta. This barrage, which feeds the Hooghly branch of the river by a 26 mile long feeder canal, and its water flow management has been a long-lingering source of dispute with Bangladesh,
  • Sheer volume of waste - estimated at nearly 1 billion litres per day - of mostly untreated raw sewage
  • Also, inadequate cremation procedures contributes to a large number of partially burnt or unburnt corpses floating down the Ganga, not to mention livestock corpses
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    NOW, ONE MAY HOPE THIS PROBLEM MIGHT BE THOUGHT OF AS A WEALTH, IF OPTING FOR THE PROPER TECHNOLOGY; TURNING THREATS INTO OPPORTUNITY.
    SINCE ANCIENT TIME, IN THE HISTORY, HUMANS ARE BENEFITING FROM COW DUNG / ANIMAL DUNG ENERGY, VIA BURNING IT AS A FUEL, HERE AND THERE, WORLD AROUND, IN SPITE OF THE UNHYGIENIC PROCESS THEREOF:
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Dung cakes
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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    LIKEWISE, IN THE CURRENT ERA, NOT ONLY ANIMAL DUNG, BUT HUMAN WASTES COULD BE ALSO CONVERTED INTO BIOGAS, THROUGH ANAEROBIC DIGESTION, IN A HYGIENIC PROCESS, WHICH IT IS REFERRED THERETO, ON THE FOLLOWING LINK, AMONG OTHER PROCESSES:
Energy & Fuels 2008, 22, 9–15 
Sewage Sludge as a Biomass Resource for the Production of Energy: 
Overview and Assessment of the Various Options† 
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OUT OF WHICH ONE CAN READ: 
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Very briefly, the various options for the recovery of energy from sewage sludge, in fact, from the organic compounds in 
the sludge, can be subdivided into nine groups: (1) anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge, (2) production of biofuels from sewage sludge, (3) direct production of electricity from sewage sludge in microbial fuel cells, (4) incineration of sewage sludge with energy recovery, (5) co-incineration of sewage sludge in coal-fired power plants, (6) gasification and pyrolysis of sewage sludge, (7) use of sludge as an energy and raw material source in the production of Portland cement and building materials, (Cool supercritical wet oxidation of sewage sludge, and (9) hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge. Several of these treatment options are already applied in practice; others are still in the research phase. 
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    OUT OF THE ABOVE 9 OPTIONS FOR THE RECOVERY OF ENERGY FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE, OPTION NO. 4 IS NOW MATERIALIZED VIA A PROCESS DEVELOPED BY "OMNI PROCESSOR ," http://janickibioenergy.com/, THROUGH THE FUNDING OF MR. BILL GATES (https://www.linkedin.com/groups?followedItems=&gid=4108717.) HOWEVER, INITIALLY IT IS THOUGHT THAT THE PROTOTYPE, CURRENTLY UNDER FIELD TRIAL, IN SENEGAL (OMNI PROCESSOR - S100; DAKAR, SENEGAL - SPRING 2015,) COULD HAVE APPLICATIONS IN AFRICA, WHERE DEALING WITH HUMAN FECES IS A GREAT HYGIENIC PROBLEM, BUT, OTHER THAN CERTAIN AFRICAN COUNTRIES, THERE COULD BE MORE APPLICATIONS THOUGHT OF, ELSEWHERE, SUCH AS ON THE GANGES RIVER BANKS, AND SIMILAR POLLUTED RIVERS WORLDWIDE, AMONG OTHER APPLICATIONS.
    THE FOLLOWING DISCUSSION, WAS POSTED, IN THIS REGARDS, AS WELL, BY THE AUTHOR ON THE LINKED-IN, COVERING BROADER APPLICATION OF THE PROCESS WORLDWIDE: 
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COULD A NEW TECHNOLOGY, SUCH AS OMNI-PROCESSOR ALLEVIATING THE COMBINED-SEWER SYSTEM'S PROBLEMS, IF PROVED ENVIRONMENTALLY SAFE AND MEETING A FAVORABLE LIFE-CYCLE GREENHOUSE-GAS EMISSIONS EFFECT, IN COMPARISON TO COMPETING PROCESSES.
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    LIKEWISE, IT WAS ONCE THOUGHT OF, AND PROBABLY IT IS STILL BEING FOLLOWED-UP, THAT THE UNTREATED SEWAGE, ENTERING THE GANGES RIVER, IN THE VARANASI AREA, BEING BLOCKED AND TO BE DELIVERED TO CERTAIN ANAEROBIC LAGOONS, FOR FURTHER TREATMENT; ON WHICH A COMMENT HAS BEEN POSTED THEREON, AS FOLLOWS:
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A COMMENT FOR THE CURRENT MANAGEMENT OF "Sankat Mochan Foundation, http://cleanganganow.org/:"
    THE  PROJECT  CONCEPT INITIALIZED BY THE  LATE PROF. VEER BHADRA MISHRA, THROUGH CONSULTATION WITH INTERNATIONAL BODIES, IN WHICH - ENVISAGED A 4-MILE PIPELINE TO INTERCEPT ALL THE SEWAGE THAT WOULD NORMALLY FLOW INTO THE GANGES FROM THE VARANASI AREA. THE PIPE LINE WOULD THEN EXTEND ANOTHER 4 MILES TO AN ELEVATED SANDBAR IN THE GANGES, WHERE A SERIES OF PONDS WOULD CLEANSE THE WASTE USING MICROORGANISMS TO DESTROY THE  BACTERIA. NOW, THE IDEA COULD  BE  MODIFIED, IN LINE WITH  THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES REMARKS, DISCUSSED ON THE FOLLOWING DOCUMENT, SINCE THE PROPOSED PONDS ARE THE SAME, AS ANAEROBIC LAGOONS; AS WELL AS OPTING FOR THE PRESENT NEW TECHNOLOGY, MENTIONED ABOVE:
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anaerobic_lagoon
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Anaerobic lagoon
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     THE FACTS DISCUSSED ON THIS DOCUMENT, ARE QUITE CONVINCING TO OPT FOR THE NEW TECHNOLOGY, AS PROPOSED, IN USING THE SLUDGE AS A FUEL, PRODUCING POTABLE WATER, ELECTRICITY AND ASH TO BE USED AS FERTILIZER (http://janickibioenergy.com/.)
    LET'S FINALLY HOPE  WITNESSING POWER PLANTS BEING SET-UP , ON THE BANKS OF THE GANGES RIVER, RUN BY UNTREATED SEWAGE, AND BENEFITING FROM THE PRODUCED DRINKING WATER, ASHES TO BE USED AS FERTILIZER, AS WELL. ABOVE ALL CREATING MANY JOBS AND SAVING ON  THE DISEASES CURING. ONE MAY START WITH A PILOT TRIAL.
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REFERENCES: 
NOTE 1: THOSE INTERESTED IN FINDING OUT THE PRESENT POLLUTION CONDITION, NOW, IN 2015, IN THE GANGES RIVER, MAY REFER TO THE FOLLOWING LINK:
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http://www.business-standard.com/article/specials/ganga-water-quality-plunges-despite-rs-986-cr-spending-over-30-years-115060100338_1.html
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NOTE 2: ALSO INFORMATION ABOUT GANGA ACTION PLAN IS PROVIDED ON THE FOLLOWING LINK:
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http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/resourcesquality/watpolcontrol.pdf
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Water Pollution Control - A Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles
Edited by Richard Helmer and Ivanildo Hespanhol
Published on behalf of the United Nations Environment Programme, the Water Supply &
Sanitation Collaborative Council and the World Health Organization by E. & F. Spon
© 1997 WHO/UNEP
ISBN 0 419 22910 8
Case Study I* - The Ganga, India
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BEST REGARDS,
MASHALLAH ALI-AHYAIE  
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Comments

Mashallah Ali-Ahyaie
HELLO JOURI,

NICE APPROACH TO THE PROBLEM FOR THE GANGA. TO THE THREE MAJOR STARTING POINTS, NAMELY; 1) THE ORIGIN OF THE WASTE, 2) THE PATH OF THE WASTE GETTING TO THE RIVER, AND 3) THE BEHAVIOR OF THE WASTE IN THE RIVER ITSELF; I WOULD LIKE TO ADD NO. 4) AS: THE MERGING POINT WHERE WASTE IS ENTERING THE RIVER.

BASED ON THE IN-NUMEROUS NUMBER OF THE ORIGIN OF THE WASTE, STARTING WITH THE BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS OF TOILETS, AND THE LIKE, HERE AND THERE, LONG LONG AWAY; PROBABLY IT WILL TAKE DECADES TO MODIFY ALL THOSE SOURCES OF WASTE. HOWEVER, ADOPTING WASTE TREATMENT FACILITIES, EITHER INDIVIDUALLY (CONVERTING TOILETS MADE OVER THE PITS TO SEPTIC TANK SYSTEMS;) OR EFFICIENT CENTRAL / DECENTRALIZED WASTE GRIDS AND TREATMENT PLANTS SHOULD BE ENFORCED IN PARALLEL. THIS APPROACH WILL ALSO TAKE CARE OF THE NO. 2, REGARDING THE PATH ON WHICH WASTE IS ADDING UP.

IN REGARDS TO NO.3, THE UNDERSIGNED HAS POSTED ANOTHER DISCUSSION, HOWEVER, ON THE RIVER YAMUNA, THE LARGEST TRIBUTARY RIVER OF THE GANGES, AS ON THE FOLLOWING LINK, WHICH ASKS FOR MORE DELIBERATIONS AND RESEARCH STUDIES; THOUGH COULD BE STARTED IN PARALLEL AS WELL:
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https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/deposited-sludge-polluted-dead-rivers-bed...
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ARE DEPOSITED SLUDGE IN POLLUTED DEAD-RIVERS BEDS A SOURCE OF ENERGY?
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NOW, IT COMES TO THE PROBLEM NO. 4, IN WHICH THE BARELY RAW / UNTREATED FECAL SLUDGE, ENTERING THE RIVER GANGES, RIGHT ON ITS TWO BANKS, ESPECIALLY WHERE THE RIVER IS PASSING THROUGH POPULATED COMMUNITIES / CITIES; SPREADING ALL PATHOGENS IN THE ENVIRONMENT.

IN THIS CONNECTION, BASED ON THE RECENT DEVELOPMENTS UNDERWAY; IT IS A SOURCE OF WEALTH BEING THROWN INTO THE RIVER, OTHERWISE IT COULD GENERATE ELECTRICITY, POTABLE WATER, HEATING SOURCE, AS HOT WATER AND FLY ASH, WHICH COULD BE USED AS FERTILIZER / CONCRETE ADDITIVES. ALTHOUGH, THE MOST IMPORTANT HIDDEN RESULTS WOULD BE JOB CREATION AND A TREMENDOUS DECLINE IN THE DISEASES TREATMENT BILLS; SINCE PATHOGENS ARE COMPLETELY ELIMINATED; PREVENTION IS MUCH CHEAPER THAT CURE.

ONE MAY CONTACT (info@janickibioenergy.com) ASKING FOR THE S-200 MODEL BROCHURE, IN PDF, WHICH THE PACKAGE COULD SERVE 100 TO 200 THOUSANDS PEOPLE FECAL DISCHARGE.

IT REALLY DESERVES A PILOT TRIAL, ON AN APPROPRIATE LOCATION, ON THE GANGES RIVER OR ELSEWHERE.
ONE MAY ALSO HAVE A LOOK AT THE FOLLOWING LINK, IN THIS CONNECTION TOO:
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https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/poignant-river-thames-ganges-today-mashal...
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THE THEN POIGNANT RIVER THAMES AND THE GANGES RIVER OF TODAY
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BEST REGARDS,
MASHALLAH
Iouri Vaisman
Good discussion on the BIG problem for THE Ganga River. It is a COMPLEX problem and there is no simple and quick solutions. Solution is also likely to be COMPLEX, reflecting the nature of the PROBLEM. However, the approach to assessing the problem and finding the SOLUTION - does not have to be a COMPLEX one! It is generally based on three major starting points - The ORIGIN of the waste, the PATH of the waste getting to the RIVER, and the behavior of the waste in the RIVER itself. Once we assess and classify those three major "pylons" - we can start building the "bridge" - by application of the LOGIC via the "RISKS ASSESSMENT" framework. Then - the multitude of options can be developed and then assessed (for each group) - the assessment should be not only FINANCIAL, but also include the CULTURAL and ENVIRONMENTAL component. It is a COMPLEX problem - but to SUCCEED - we need to approach it in as a LOGICAL way as we possibly can. And I SINCERELY hope that it will HAPPEN - for the sake of the GREAT RIVER!
Mashallah Ali-Ahyaie
DEAR JIGNESH,

IN THE SELECTION OF ANY PROCESS, IN GETTING RID / MAXIMUM USE OF WASTE / SLUDGE, ALL PROS AND CONS CONSIDERATIONS HAVE TO BE TAKEN, INTO CONSIDERATION.

THE DEWATS (Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Systems,) ALSO HAVE TO BE EVALUATED / SELECTED IN COMPARISON TO OTHER PROCESSES, BASED ON THE SURFACE AREA REQUIREMENT, - WHICH THERE ARE LIMITATIONS WITH DEWATS ANY WAY -, CAPABILITIES COPING WITH ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES, SUCH AS COMPLETE PATHOGENS ELIMINATIONS, OBTAINING MAXIMUM USE OF THE ENERGY EMBEDDED IN THE SLUDGE, PAYBACK PERIOD OF THE INVESTMENT, AREA SPECIFIC CONDITIONS, ETC.

YOU REFERRED TO SHOCK LOAD CAPACITY, WHICH COULD BE TAKEN CARE OF IN ANY COMPETING SYSTEM VIA THE PROVISION OF PRE-STORAGE CAPACITY. ALSO, I WONDER, WHY THERE WAS NO NEED TO ELECTRICITY, IF IT WAS PRODUCED AS A BY-PRODUCT. FURTHERMORE, IF BIOGAS IS PRODUCED OUT OF A DECENTRALIZED WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM, THEN PRODUCING ELECTRICITY FROM THE BIOGAS IS ONE OF THE OPTIONS, IF NOT USED FOR HEATING OR COOKING PURPOSES.

PLEASE KINDLY NOTE THE FOLLOWING FEATURES OF THE FOLLOWING PILOT TRIAL MODEL, FOR THE TIME BEING. IT JUST NEEDS ONLY 8m X 23m AREA, FOR 12.3 cubic meters OF SEWAGE PER DAY, AND PRODUCING POTABLE WATER, ELECTRICITY AND ASH TO BE USED AS FERTILIZERS, WHILE ALL PATHOGENS ARE COMPLETELY ELIMINATED:
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OMNI PROCESSOR - S100 (HTTP://JANICKIBIOENERGY.COM/S100.HTML)
DAKAR, SENEGAL - SPRING 2015
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TOP QUESTIONS
HOW MUCH WATER CAN BE PRODUCED?
10,800 LITERS PER DAY
HOW MUCH SEWER SLUDGE CAN BE PROCESSED?
12.3 cubic meters per day
How much power can be produced?
150 kW. When producing maximum power, less water will be produced.
What is the machine footprint?
8m X 23m
What type of fuel does it use?
Sewer sludge
What is the maximum moisture content of the fuel?
84%
What standards does the drinking water meet?
The drinking water meets both United States FDA and World Health Organization standards.

CAN YOU REALLY DRINK WATER MADE FROM SEWER SLUDGE?

YES! IT'S NO DIFFERENT THAN BOTTLED WATER.
Because we heat the sludge until it boils, water exits the dryer as steam. At this temperature, pathogens cannot survive. While the water is in the vapor phase, it is filtered to remove particles. We then take this bio-safe steam and condense it to water before putting it through water treatment.
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RGDS,
JIGNESH GOYANI
DEWATS is the one of the best solution for all different location of sewer line point, no need for electricity and better shock load capacity.
Mashallah Ali-Ahyaie
HELLO JIGNESH,

SORRY MY REPLY TO YOUR COMMENT IS MISPLACED, AS A NEW COMMENT. PLEASE KINDLY LET ME KNOW IF BEING CONVINCED.
RGDS,
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