Electro-Magnetic Desalination

James Lindgaard
Started by James Lindgaard on
07 Dec 2013 at 13:01
Know-how: Industrial, Water

  What might be a unique concept is to use electro-magnetism.

 The reason such thoughts could be considered is that the light emission wave from Na & Cl are about 400 n-m's.

 And with NaCl, it may have a low frequency that could be repelled by a magnetic wave of opposing polarity.

 This translates to about 0.4 Hz. And since light emission would be considered a positive discharge, another potential that might have opposing polarity might be able to repel sodium ions. As such, water molecules would be able to flow through such a magnetic field.

 And if it matters, magnetic waves are composed of photons or light energy.


James Lindgaard
Since I posted Bessler's wheel as a possible way for water to be pumped using gravity, I thought I would post a link to his drawing that I am building. You see, with the solar idea I was able to think of using Tarig's suggestion, it would actually be a channel the water flows in. And a glass or polycarbonate covering would increase the surface area that the sun can act on. Basically an area 2.5 times greater than the surface area of the water. This would account for the energy needed to covert water into steam.
With Bessler's wheel, if a 500 gram weight is on a lever, it can generate 1 kg of force or more. And when it opens a bellow, it pulls the water upward maintain a positive over balance. I am building a 4 bellow design.
I'll make a "library" on photobucket which I will provide a link for. And then anyone interested in seeing what progress I am making can do so. it's that with Bessler's wheel, if successful will hopefully help to get some solar purifiers built and placed where they would be needed. One of the reason's why I would be confident about the solar purifier is my experience working with boilers, turbines and heat exchangers when I served in the U.S. Navy. A different way to use my education.

I thought I would mention that there some wind turbine designs I hope to pursue. And in countries like the U.SA. where I live, it would be helpful. And in places like Egypt, it may be able to help with desalination. One thought would be to have a wind turbine power an R.O. and water transport system.
James Lindgaard
While I'm at it, here is this link to Wikipedia's solar flash evaporator page.

One challenge they mention is "The challenge still existing in the field today, is to achieve the optimum temperature difference between the solar-generated vapor and the seawater-cooled condenser, maximal reuse of the energy of condensation, and minimizing the asset investment".
On board some ships, there is about a 1 centigrade difference between steam temperature and water temperature. By having the warm flow along the length of the tubes before they enter the green house/evacuated tube heating array, it would be about the best that could be hoped for.
While the link states that using vertical alignment of the tubes allows maximum heating, tilting the green house for this type of system would have the same effect and possibly allow a greater area of exposure to direct sun light.
Just have to wait and see I guess.
James Lindgaard
I've done some checking on what might work on a system using solar radiation as the only source of heat energy. What might be worth trying is modifying the evacuated tube.
By placing copper tubes inside a green house type enclosure, water could be heated some what efficiently. And by having the copper tubes end in an area of vacuum, steam should be what is discharged from the pipes. Remember, water boils at 50 degrees Celsius if it's atmosphere has 26 inches of vacuum.
And any water which is still salinized or is impure could be discharged. The steam that such a system generates could rise over a barrier where it is cooled into condensate. And this condensate could be used to preheat water before entering the evacuated copper tubes.
The link is to a diagram of an evacuated tube. One thing I like about this is that if the flow rate of water through the pipe is such that the pipe maintains it's maximum warmth, it would allow for a greater surface area to volume of water for transferring heat.
I am working on something called Bessler's wheel which could provide mechanical energy to operate pumps with. One person who lives in Cairo, Egypt once posted that if such a thing were possible, he could use it to help people in the African bush who have water but have trouble pumping it from the well.
There are other countries that have the same dilemma. It is something that could help impoverished people who do have clean well water available to them. At present, I am currently off work because I seriously injured my hand while working on Bessler's wheel. When my doctor gives me the green light to work with it again, then I'll be able to resume my work on it.
It might be that it could get some other people interested in inexpensive water purifiers for humanitarian purposes. Any way, Hopefully.
James Lindgaard
I thought I would post some more information on this. And if pumps are needed, solar powered motors could be used for 100% green energy.
To give everyone an idea of how much fun math is to play with, consider a small greenhouse that can hold 1100 liters (kg's) of water.
With a modest 700 watts of solar radiation, it's temperature could be raised by 0.56 degrees Celsius every hour.
Heating 100 liters with 700 watts of solar radiation allow for a temperature increase of about 6 degrees Celsius per hour. And with 26 hg's (inches) of vacuum, water boils at 50 degrees Celsius and not 100 degrees Celsius.
And if the condensing steam and discharged brine are used to preheat the water needing treatment, then the efficiency of the system would increase.
And 700 watts square meter seems to be the low end of solar radiation in the Middle East/North Africa regions. And if the flow rate were matched to the heating of the water, then little energy would be wasted in what might be found to be a purely green concept, basically it would only use sun light to perform work.
How ever, a vacuum pump and discharge pump may be needed. Of course, if they were solar powered also...
What is convenient is that if 1 square meter is heating the water to boiling temperature, then an area 1.5 square would provide the necessary energy to convert it to steam.
When water is converted to steam, it will cool the surface water unless the lost energy is replaced. So basically, an area of 2.5 square meters heating an area of 1 square meter would be in equilibrium with itself.
Such a system would be able to generate steam with the temperatures within the system remaining stable. And this would ensure a consistent output.
Edited to add a link to a basic diagram. a vacuum pump as well as discharge pump would be needed. What the diagram shows is that when water is evaporated, it can collect on the surface above it. When this happens, it can condense and flow down it towards center. When this happens, it can drain into a fresh water discharge which acts as a preheater. No brine discharge is show but it can circulate through a heat exchanger to assist in preheating water to be purified. With the dimensions given, 20 - 25 liters per hour should be possible with water starting at 25 Celsius and being heated to 50 Celsius in about 26 inches of vacuum.
James Lindgaard
@All, I did some fact checking and found some things that are quite interesting.
The water temperature in the Gulf of Suez can reach 50 Celsius. With 26 inches of vacuum, it would be close to it's boiling point.
And with a minimum of 700 watts/hr March through October in Cairo, that would be enough solar energy to raise the temperature of about 1,500 liters 1 degree Celsius in one hour.
With a surface area of 100 square meters, that would be 150,000 liters per hour. And this would not include the greenhouse effect. Still, 750,000 liters a day would be a start. This last figure could be the peak output during summer.
One thing a concept like this would consider is that water would flow over a flat reflective panel. This should create an increase of thermal energy in the space that the water would occupy.
Tarig Almaryoud
Dear James first i didn't understand the technique but now it's clear to i love it it can produce clean water for small communities thank you
James Lindgaard
Tarig, you are welcome. Without your suggestion, I would not have thought of something like that.
I am making it known to a few people. I am currently working on something called Bessler's Wheel. If his wheel works the way I believe it does, then it could be used with your solar/Greenhouse type desalinator/purifier.
Bessler's wheel could supply the mechanical energy for a pump and then it would be a complete system.
edited to add; when using vacuum, a pump would be necessary for continuous operation during the day.
Tarig Almaryoud
James let me tell you that you're genius your idea would make the system green energy system and cost-effective and useful for rural areas where the energy is costly
James Lindgaard
Tarig, Thank you for your kind words. If you did not think of using the green house effect, I could not have thought of a system it could work in. I would say most people would not think of using the greenhouse effect for desalination but you did.
I mentioned to someone named Mesi M. where he and some others are concerned about fresh water in North Africa and the Middle East. You see Tarig, what you have me wondering is if this works on a small scale, could it work on a much larger scale ?
If so, then your idea that I am helping you with might be able to help many more people. Only time will tell. Kind of why I like humanities, if it works for a few people, fine. And if it works for more, so much the better.
Tarig Almaryoud
James. I agree with you that applying some electricity can increase efficiency of the process .
James Lindgaard
Tarig, I made a quick diagram. With water under 15 inches of vacuum, it evaporates at 80 Celsius, at 26 inches of vacuum, it evaporates at 50 Celsius.
simple diagram;

It may even be possible to have the water operate a vacuum pump. I hope you like it Tarig
James Lindgaard
Tarig, you are right about that. With what you have mentioned, a canopy over a greenhose effect could double the amount of sun light used for heating the water. Like wise, the clean water could be cooled by preheating the brackish water preparing it for cleaning.
There is a free energy concept that I have posted which if it works, it could be used to generate electricity. It could either assist in heating the water or for using other methods of water purification.
With the free energy principle, it is something that could help in impoverished areas. And with what you have mentioned, by combining different idea's, some help might be able to be given to those who do need it.
Tarig Almaryoud
Dear James
I think it's a creative method for seawater desalination but in areas where there is only brackish well's water this technique would be costly. there is another useful and method for desalination which is Solar Still Basin it's work on natural rains concept , the water evaporates after being heat up by sun light which is trapped under the class where the concept of green house effect work and then the water water vapor will condensate on the class and run down to collecting vessel.
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