Solid Waste Management



    A Review of Knowledge, Practices and Technologies Christian Riu Lohri, Dan Sweeney, Hassan Mtoro Rajabu 

    This report reviews existing knowledge on char-making to help stakeholders understand under which circumstances carbonization of municipal biowaste may be feasible. The report starts with a general overview of common municipal solid waste management challenges in low-and middle-income countries. It then summarizes the current situation regarding conventional charcoal production and consumption as cooking fuel, reviewing some of the trends and theories behind the concept of ‘household fuel switching’. It also describes biomass carbonization in details, i.e., input requirements, chemical conversion processes and output properties, and reviews information on existing biomass-to-char technologies: e.g., process and reactor types, capacity, construction materials, conversion efficiency, energy source, residence time, emissions, fixed carbon yield, auxiliary requirements, working life and capital cost. This part of the report draws heavily from literature on wood pyrolysis because there is limited information on slow pyrolysis of biowaste. The last chapter draws an analysis of the feasibility of biowaste carbonization in cities of developing countries and highlights challenges, opportunities and areas for further research. This review concludes that the high demand for carbonized fuel in cities of low-and middle-income countries has created the market for waste-derived char briquettes. Yet, a major challenge to their production is having continuous access to dry, unmixed, homogeneous, uncontaminated substrates, which are available at no or low costs. In other words, a good supply of source-separated wastes that can be obtained near the point of their production is needed. Furthermore, most existing carbonization systems are either inefficient and polluting or relatively expensive. For a sustainable and financially viable waste-to-char business an appropriate, locally manufactured and operated, cost-effective system is required, which is non-polluting and energy-efficient with controlled use of all combustible by-products and waste heat. 

    Keywords Carbonization, char briquettes, charcoal, cooking fuel, organic solid waste, slow pyrolysis, decentralized recycling, waste-to-energy, low- and middle-income countries Bibliographic reference Lohri, C.R., Sweeney, D., Rajabu, H.M. (2015): Carbonizing Urban Biowaste for Low-Cost Char Production in Developing Countries - A Review of Knowledge, Practices and Technologies. Joint Report by Eawag, MIT D-Lab and UDSM. 

  • Faecal Sludge management -Systems approach to operations and management


    After decades promoting sanitation in low- and middle-income countries, several countries and the global sanitation community have come to realise that it is time to rethink the approach to accelerating access to quality services. Since 2000, the Joint Monitoring Program (WHO/UNICEF) of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) has consistently reported that the share of the population in low- and middle-income countries that use pit latrines, septic tanks, and systems termed as ‘unimproved’ sanitation facilities is growing. It is now estimated that between 2.1 – 2.6 billion people in low- and middle-income countries rely on onsite technologies that produce tons of untreated faecal sludge (FS) every day. When septic tanks and pit latrines become full, the sludge that is collected from them is largely discharged untreated into open drains, irrigation fields, open lands, or surface waters. The amount of untreated FS discharged into the open environment poses a serious public health risk. A 5 m3 truck load of FS dumped into the environment is the equivalent of 5,000 people practicing open defecation. Adding to this is the heavy load from open defecation of raw faeces excreted in the open by an additional 1.1 billion people who still do not have access to any toilet. The consequences of this waste entering the environment are staggering. The World Bank estimates that poor sanitation costs the world 260 billion USD annually. Poor sanitation contributes to 1.5 million child deaths from diarrhoea each year. Chronic diarrhoea can also hinder child development by impeding the absorption of essential nutrients that are critical to the development of the mind, body, and immune system. It can also impede the absorption of life-saving vaccines. In the 1980s, under the leadership of Roland Scherteinleib and Martin Strauss, the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG) established the Department of Water and Sanitation for Developing Countries (SANDEC) with a strong research and development focus on FS management (FSM). Since then, SANDEC has been a research pioneer in developing, evaluating and testing sanitation solutions, complemented by a strong policy and advocacy program. It has both informed and driven a global call to action on the issue. This book is an impressive resource that capitalises on recent scientific evidence and practical solutions tested at scale by sector professionals. It compiles lessons drawn from rigorous scientific and case study investigations to formulate operational approaches and solutions for planners, engineers, scientists, students, and researchers. It fills important FSM knowledge gaps, while at the same time acknowledging persistent gaps and identifying new areas of innovation for future research. It is a valuable handbook for any sanitation professional or academic. It is solution-oriented and addresses the issues that real practitioners face (e.g. city managers, engineering companies, development organisations).

  • A pod to pick up poo

    A company Wetlands Work are developing plant-based purifiers, called Handy Pods, filled with plants, floats under the latrine of a river house and decontaminate the water that flows out

    The natural instinct might be to make a deposit in the water. But that wouldn't be safe. Microbes in your feces would contaminate the water and could cause outbreaks of deadly diseases, like cholera.

  • A2Z Infrastructure

    Creating a Cleaner Climate is a mission everyone at A2Z is dedicated to and that is why forays have been planned into the space of Municipal Solid Waste management and Renewable Energy.

    As one of the leading Indian Waste Management companies, we are proud of setting up the biggest, single location Integrated Resource Recovery Facility (IRRF) in Asia as well as setting up one of the first IRRF with ESCO focus.

Please feel free to submit your feedback below

Enter the characters shown in the image.