Government officials signed an agreement September 8 with Sur Construction of Ethiopia, and Sinohydro Corp. and China Gezhouba Group Co. (CGGC) of China, the government-owned Ethiopian News Agency reported.
A steel observatory tower standing 325 meters high is now being erected in an area 100 miles outside of the state capital city of Manaus in order to cull data related to weather, carbon gas, winds, and cloud formation.
The ancient Greeks used clay and stone; the Romans, sponges and salt water. Americans made do with rags, newspapers or mail-order catalogs until 1890 when the Scott brothers popularized toilet paper on a roll.
On Capitol Hill today, water sector leaders from across the country invited Washington to join them in investing the hundreds of billions of dollars required to strengthen the nation’s water infrastructure – helping bolster America’s workforce and sharpen the nation’s competitive edge.
A methodology is proposed to identify improved thermal-based desalination structures. It is based on the notion of superstructure, allowing for the simultaneous representation of numerous feed, brine and vapor routing schemes. By adjusting the flow routings, the superstructure is capable of representing the common thermal desalination structures, as well as an extremely large number of alternate structures, some of which might exhibit advantageous behavior. The superstructure is built around a repeating unit which is a generalization of an effect in a multi-effect distillation system (MED) and a stage in a multi-stage flash system (MSF). The superstructure is proposed as an improved tool for the structural optimization of thermal desalination systems, whereby the optimal selection of components making up the final system, the optimal routing of the vapors as well as the optimal operating conditions are all variables simultaneously determined during the optimization problem. The proposed methodology is applicable to both stand-alone desalination plants and dual purpose (water and power) plants wherein the heat source to the desalination plant is fixed. It can be extended to also consider hybrid thermal–mechanical desalination structures, as well as dual purpose plants where the interface of power cycle and desalination is also optimized for.